"Fourteen points for peace" have been prepared by B. Wilson together with his closest advisor, Colonel House, in late 1917. They were dictated by Wilson in his speech before Congress in January 08, 1918 as a basis for the peaceful rebuilding of postwar Europe.
He put forward a proposal to establish an international organization of global scope: "A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to the both great and small States" (Tindall 116). He took direct participation in the work of the commission, which was tasked to develop the institutional foundations of the League of Nations.
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As chairman, Wilson was hoping not to miss the chance to create an organization in which the U.S. would own control mechanisms. Economic power should be the main element. Who could undertake a full economic boycott, or in contrary, to provide credits, raw materials, and technologies in the world of 1919? If the economic boycott was not enough (almost improbable case), then should be put in motion the military machine of countries united in the League of Nations. Who could resist this force?
One of the most influential Republican senators, Henry D. Cabot Lodge, a senior, who became the leader of the Republicans in 1919 and the chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, was one of the main opponents of the United States entry in the League of Nations. Initiated by him campaign against ratification of the Versailles Peace Treaty (1919) has acquired especially violent nature almost immediately after the return of President W. Wilson from the Paris peace talks. Apart from the fact that Senator sustained personal dislike to the president, his position on the Treaty and its component parts, the Charter of the League of Nations, was determined by his conviction that the U.S. should play a more decisive role in world politics. According to the Lodge, the limitations of the League of Nations on the future role of his country in the world, is radically contrary to its interests. The appeal has been written by the Senator and without any emotions was read by him in the Senate in August 12, 1919. His speech was met with ovation of senators who filled the Senate gallery hall (Reynolds 96).
However, the ratification of the Versailles Treaty conditions proposed by Senator Lodge, as fourteen updates, did not receive the required two-thirds majority of senators, as expected, as well they did not support Wilson’s proposal of an unconditional ratification of the treaty. Versailles treaty and, therefore, the U.S. membership in the League of Nations had been rejected as it wasn’t met the national interests of the country. —————————————————————————–
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