The first of Kohlberg’s three levels of moral development is the pre-conventional level. During this level a person is concerned with the consequences of their actions and it contains two stages. Stage one is avoiding punishment, a child will behave in a way that will not result in punishment. Stage two is satisfying a need. A child will do what it takes to meet a need or want they have.
The second level is the conventional level. It is when a person’s decisions are based on society’s standards of right and wrong, It contained the next two stages of moral development. The third stage is winning approval, a person will try to gain the approval of others using the standards of right and wrong. A person will do the right thing not for the sake of doing something good but to get the approval of others. The fourth stage judgements are based on law and order. A person will have respect for authority and try to follow laws as best they can.
The third and final level of moral development is the post-conventional level. Stage five judgements are based on personal values. While law and order are still considered important, but if a need is great enough, they will break the law and follow their own values. Sixth stage reasoning is based on universal values like justice, dignity, and life. A person will make decisions heavily based on their values and will not follow laws that they don’t agree with.
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As people get older they start to get wrinkles because the skin loses elasticity. The senses can sometimes dull, bones get weaker, reactions get slower. What a person can do to deal with these problems is eating well and exercising regular it helps keeps the body fit and flexible.
While most people don’t experience any significant cognitive problems as they age, some can develop a dementia, a serious loss of cognitive ability. People with a dementia can have serious memory loss, speech problems, difficulty concentrating on things, or even performing simple tasks. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease. It usually causes severe memory loss and confusion. Researchers do not yet know the exact cause of Alzheimer’s but there are many theories.
When a person reaches about 65 – 70 they may be forced to retire. Many people looks forward to the freedom of retirement, while others worry about what they will do wth all their free time. When most people first retire, they begin to do the things that they wanted to do, but didn’t have time for. However, when they have done all they wanted, or realize what they wanted wasn’t as good as they thought, they often join volunteer groups, or get a part time job to occupy their time. Older people often have grandchildren, which they seem to have a better relationship with than their own children as they don’t have to bear the responsibility of raising the child, but can still enjoy it’s company. Many people believe that when a person has retired they either go to a nursing home, live with their children, or move into a condo in a warmer climate, this assumption is false. Most older people stay in their home town because of the familiar surroundings, and they normally own their own home as well.
When preparing for a test it is important to gather information about it, find out when and where it will be, what type of questions there will be, and what areas should be studied. A student should practice by studying on a regular basis and making up their own test questions to practice with. Group studying can be beneficial. Studying on a regular basis will make sure that a person isn’t caught off guard by a pop quiz. It is also important to know how to take a test well. Carefully read all instructions and follow them exactly. Make sure you come prepared with right equipment for the test be it pens, pencils, scrap paper, a calculator, etc. Getting stressed over a test doesn’t help anything; and there are steps that can be taken to avoid this anxiety. Be prepared for the test, study the material on a regular basis instead of cramming the night before. Over-learn the material; when you think you know something, keep reviewing it and you will know it even better. Think positive thoughts. Negative thoughts will only make the experience harder, before you even take the test, tell yourself you will pass, higher confidence results in higher performance. When answering an essay question a person should first make sure they completely understand the question so while writing their essay they will not stray off topic. Read the directions, looking for keywords that will guide you in what to do. Before you write the essay make a quick outline to keep your ideas organized. It is important to express your strongest idea first, and the rest of the essay can be support.
Health psychology is concerned with the relationship between psychological and physical conditions, and the treatment and prevention of related physical illnesses. Stress can reduce the effectiveness of the immune system. When a body is stressed, it is stimulated to release steroids, which inhibits the functioning of the immune system, and interferes with the production of antibodies. The most common type of headache is the muscle-tension headache. When a person is stressed, the muscles in the scalp, forehead, shoulders, and neck tend to tighten up. The longer the stress, the longer the muscles stay tense and a feeling of pain sometime accompanied by a feeling of pressure, will set in. Headaches can become a cycle as the headache itself is a source of stress, causing the headache to get worse. There are many causes of heart disease but there are three main stress related causes. Having a Type A personality makes a person more likely to get a heart disease because of all the stress they put themselves into. A constant need to control and repress intense emotions like anger and hostility can be very stressful, and lead to a heart disease. Job strain is also a significant cause. Overtime work, a repetitive job, and conflicts in the work place are all stressful, and con contribute to the development of a heart disease. Cancer is yet another disease that stress can worsen. A person’s body is subject to cancer cells rather frequently, but the immune system normally destroys them. However, if a person is stressed to the point where their immune system isn’t functioning properly than a tumor can start and the cancer can spread. It has also been shown that stress can effect how the cancer will develop.
The main biological treatment of psychological disorders is drug treatment. It generally works quite well for many disorders. Anti-anxiety drugs help people deal with anxiety disorders and serious distress in their lives. The drug works by reducing the nervous system’s activity, lowering the heart and breathing rates, and decreasing the stressed feelings. While the drugs can temporarily dela with the symptoms they will not cure the disorder, so the drugs are usually used for just a short period of time. The most common side effect of these drugs is fatigue, people may also develop a dependence for the drug. Antidepressant drugs are used to treat people with major depression, and sometimes they are used for eating disorders and panic disorders. Anti depressants increase the amounts of noradrenaline and/or serotonin. They increase activity and reduce the symptoms of depression, the drugs need time to build up in the system to be properly effective, it can take days or weeks. Some studies have shown that antidepressants are no more effective than cognitive therapy, and since cognitive therapy has no side effects, and helps a person deal with the problem on their own, many experts believe that antidepressants should be reserved only for people who don’t respond to cognitive therapy. Antidepressants also have the side effects of increased heart rate and weight gain. Lithium is used to treat bipolar disorder, it isn’t understood exactly how it works but it flattens out a person’s mania and depression cycles. The main side effects of lithium are impaired memory, shakiness, and excessive thirst. Antipsychotic drugs treat people with schizophrenia. They reduce levels of agitation, delusions and hallucinations. With the use of this drug, people who would normally have to live in a mental hospital, can now live relatively normal lives. The side effects are balance and coordination problems, tremors, and twitching, but these only appear after prolonged use.
Electroconvulsive Therapy, also known as ECT, is a method now used rarely, and only for people who don’t respond to less extreme measures. A patient is knocked unconscious with an anesthetic, and an electrical current is passed through the brain, it causes violent involuntary convulsions. It is known to help severely depressed people who didn’t respond to drug therapy. The ECT treatment is very controversial because it is not understood how it works, and it has severe side effects like memory loss.
A method even more controversial than ECT is psychosurgery. It is brain surgery to treat psychological disorders. The most common technique is prefrontal lobotomy, it is used to reduce violence and agitation in a person. The procedure involves cutting the nerve connections in the brain between the prefrontal lobes and the thalamus. This treatment has severe side effects such as overeating, reduced learning ability, seizures, apathy, social withdrawal, distractibility, reduced creativity, and sometimes death.
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