The United Nations peacekeeping process is aimed to help out countries all over the world with their differences. Countries declare war on another for treaty violations, land ownership and many unreasonable conflicts. On the 31 of July, the Resolution 1312 was adopted by the Security Council. The resolution established the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea known as UNMEE.
The United Nations Charter, chapter 1 articles 1 & 2 aimed to have a peaceful resolution before tensions evolve and the inevitable war becomes the outcome. The United Nations is the peacekeeping president over all the residing countries on this planet. When a country like Ethiopia is having difficulties with another country like Eritrea, Ethiopia will contact the United Nations for advice. The countries then agree on terms and conditions for peace and the conflict is then solved. The United Nation is generally asked upon by a country or organization for help in diffusing conflicts in their country.
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The United Nations Article 1 purpose is to maintain peace and security in the country with the conflict. The United Nations will take effective measures for the removal of the threats to peace. They do this within the principles of justice and international law. The United Nations develop friendly relations between nations and take appropriate measures to strengthen the universal peace. The United Nations tries to achieve in solving international problems of economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character by promoting and encouraging respect for human rights. The United Nation also is for the fundamental freedoms without disrespect to race, sex, language and religion. The United Nation acts as a center for harmonizing and achieving these goals.
The United Nations Article 2 purpose is the organization of its members, in pursuit of the purpose stated in Article 1 and shall act in accordance with the following problem solvers. The organization is based on the principle of sovereign equality of all its members. All members with rights and benefits shall fulfill the obligations granted to them in this charter. All the members shall settle disputes by peaceful intentions and not endanger international peace, security and justice. All members shall reduce problems with other countries without disputes that could erupt in breaching the peace. All the members shall give the United Nation every assistance due with the charter and refrain from giving any one country help against the United Nations or any other countries. These countries that are members shall act in accordance with the charter.
Nothing in this chapter shall authorize the intervention into the domestic problems and will not be prejudice to there application of enforcement under chapter eight. The United Nations follows these rules and regulations as well as other chapters in hope to keep the peace. These rules and regulations were cited from the United Nations Charter and the United Nation follows these rules religiously without error.
The Ethiopian and Eritrea governments have been at war for two years up until this date. The Organization of Africans (OAU) held talks in Algiers form 29 of April to 5 of May 2000. The talks were aimed at assisting Ethiopian and Eritrean governments in an implementation plan that would lead to peaceful resolution to the conflict, which began 6 of May 1998.The fighting resumed on 12 of May 2000. Resolution 1297 adopted by the Security Council later that day, called for reconvening of peace talk on the basis of the framework agreement facilitated by the OAU. The Security Council adopted resolution 1298 on 17 of May called on the stop of sales of arms to Ethiopian and Eritrea. By the end of the first week Ethiopia have made advances on the western front.
The two governments signed the “Cessation of the Hostilities” on 18 of June. On the 30 of June the United Nations general received an issue of the report asking the United Nations to establish the peacekeeping operation. A United Nations Reconnaissance mission was sent to the region on 4-18 of July. Mission representatives met with the members of the OAU and the parties discussed for the United Nations assistance with the agreement. The mission report was sent to the security general. Over the past two years these countries have been fighting and they have now just contacted the United Nation to establish peace. Then they started three phases of resolution on 31 of July. Then the cease fire came about between the two countries.
The United Nations did a little more than establishing the cease fire. The UNMEE then started establishing resolutions; one of the first resolutions was to deploy 4,200 troops, including 220 military observers into Ethiopia and Eritrea. The UNMEE monitors hostilities between the sides, the number of troops and their positions taken after February 6, 1999. The UNMEE made sure the forces were twenty-five kilometers from each other. Then UNMEE monitored the Temporary Security Zone to assist ensuring compliance with the Agreement signed 18 of June. A special representative appointed by the Security General authorizes all missions within the Temporary Security Zone. The special representative keeps close contact with the political and military leaders from both sides as well as the OAU and United Nations country teams. The special representatives will have many other branches of military help, to ensure peace. The UNMEE military observers will investigate incidents, challenges inspections, conducts patrols by land and air and monitor the Temporary Security Zone.
There are three phases to the UNMEE peacekeeping operations to go through. The first phase was to send two military liaison officers to both capitols in July. Offices were set up in Asmara, Addis and the UNMEE established contact with the OAU unit. In the second phase up to 100 military observers will be deployed. The observers will contact with parties in the field, and visit military headquarters and verify the cessation of hostilities. The third phase includes 220 military observers, three infantry battalions and necessary support units will be deployed to western, central and eastern parts of the Temporary Security Zone.
The United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea held meetings almost monthly to give the status of the war in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Over the next two years UNMEE held these meetings with minor problems occurring during this time. On Monday, 25 of February 2002 the council concluded the mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea. The ambassador stated, “The implementation phase ahead should move forward expeditiously through close cooperation between the parties, the Boundary Commission and the UNMEE with a view to further improve the lives of the people.” The ambassador further stated “The process should proceed in an orderly manner and maintain stability in the effected areas.” (1) The ambassador feels comfortable with the situation being under control. The ambassador Kolby held a ceremony on the bridge between the two countries. Kolby stated, “This is a physical bridge, but there is also another bridge, and this bridge is between minds.”(1) Kolby hopes that these two great countries can build this bridge and a common future.
The United Nations travels all over the world solving problems and keeping peace between the neighboring countries. In this case they traveled over to Ethiopia and Eritrea solving there disagreement successfully with minor casualties. Peace was inevitable as soon as the United Nations was involved. Within three months the United Nations stopped the fighting and had every thing silenced by February 2002. The United Nation followed the charter to peace successfully with no casualties to their side. The United Nations went into a troubled area with a plan of attack; they executed it successfully and are now resolving other problems around the world.
The United Nations I feel went into Ethiopia and Eritrea with a plan and when it came down to it they handled everything they were asked to do and made sure their presence was felt. The United Nations charter can come in handy when you are trying to solve problems in a foreign country. I do not understand why the OAU took so long to contact the United Nations. It is the United Nations job is to be the peacekeeper of the land and all situations must go through them for their approval. These two poor countries are fighting over nonsense and they should be worried about more important things. There country has little to no food resource and they have little income. These two countries should be working on making money, improving their economy and should worry about this situation later. They spend more money on weapons then they do on the food for the starving. These two countries felt shedding blood was more important so there is no changing their mind.
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