Why should juveniles be tried as adults? This is a very complex question to answer, so we must consider closer the whole matter.
Juvenile delinquency is one of the most pressing social problems around the world. The growth of such crimes is characterized primarily to the developed countries. To the main causes of juvenile delinquency, Western experts include youth unemployment, lack of the social aspects for young people in the future, dissatisfaction about the modern way of governance.
Thus, according to the West German police, 14% of all arrested offenders in 1996 had not a permanent job. Among the perpetrators committed theft, unemployed amounted to fourth. They have committed 28% of crimes against persons, 34% of robberies.
Western experts expressed other opinions on the causes of the growth of juvenile delinquency. Thus, the head of the federal Bureau of Justice for Justice and Delinquency Prevention United States A. Regnery considers major causes of juvenile delinquency a family breakdown, child abuse, violation of the inalienable rights of children to receive education and training, living in normal conditions and, as a result, child run away from home. Examination of minors in Connecticut showed that 75% of the perpetrators of the most serious acts of violence were themselves abused by parents and others. Their share of the total number of persons who have committed violent crimes, was 33%.
Japanese experts assess the causes of the current wave of juvenile crime in the country in their own specific way. They believe that this increase in crime is due to the growth of wealth and its consequences – the stress associated with learning, lack of education in the family, breakdown of traditional family values, individualism.
It should be noted that a Japanese study also shows that juvenile offenders are often those who grew up without parents, as well as people from low-income families.
Serious problem for Japanese schools is a recognized lack of specialists in psychotherapy. It is believed to be a reason for the increase in violence against parents, teachers, and classmates.
So the jurisprudence of suspended sentence, which is currently being implemented for approximately half of all juveniles sentenced to imprisonment is widely used for juvenile. In addition, some of the offenders (20%) shall be exempt from criminal liability or punishment: the materials thereon or transferred to juvenile commission, or they are subject to compulsory education measures.
Thus, the real criminal penalties are executed for less than half of adolescents who commit criminal acts. Given that juveniles are not subjected to a number of sentences, and some (such as a fine, correctional labor) are used in a very limited manner, the main type of real (executable) punishment is imprisonment, which persons condemned as minors serving in juvenile correctional facilities.
If a teenager who commits an offense under the age of criminal responsibility, i.e., he was not yet 14 years old, the use of the criminal penalties is recognized as impractical, nevertheless, such teenagers, who need special education conditions, are sent to a special educational institution.
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